By Mahmoud Fouly, Zheng Kailun CAIRO Egypt
(Xinhua) -- The restive Middle East region
has gone through conflicts and disorders in the outgoing year 2017
with regional and international powers, alliances and blocs as key
players, while earnest dialogue and unity are called for to find
solutions to the region’s chronic crises.
Extending from northern Africa to western Asia, the region has been
the most tense worldwide throughout history, passing through a dozen
of conflicts in the past few decades, including the Arab-Israeli
wars, the Lebanese civil war, the Iraqi-Iranian war, the Iraqi
invasion of Kuwait, the U.S. invasion of Iraq, the division of Sudan
and the tribal conflicts in Yemen.
Over the past few years, particularly following the so-called Arab
Spring uprisings that toppled some powerful Arab leaders, turmoil
has further hit Syria, Iraq, Libya and Yemen, with Lebanon suffering
political instability and the Palestinian-Israeli peace process
facing a deadlock.
The world’s two main big powers, the United States and Russia, are
obviously key players in the regional developments, with both
playing political and military roles along with their regional
allies, to maintain their interests in the conflict-stricken region.
The United States under President Donald Trump, who took office in
January 2017, showed massive support to its number one regional ally
Israel, disregarding its settlement construction on occupied
Palestinian territories, failing to exercise pressure on Israel to
engage in a real peace process and finally recognizing the disputed
holy city of Jerusalem as Israel’s capital despite Arab and Islamic
Receiving hundreds of billions of dollars, Washington vowed support
for its oil-rich Gulf allies led by Saudi Arabia against Iran,
Russia’s regional ally that is criticized by the United States and
the West for its nuclear program.
Sunni Saudi Arabia and Shiite Iran are considered main regional
rivals, with each attempting to expand influence through allying
with rival big powers and regional players. Since March 2015, a
Saudi-led Arab alliance has been launching airstrikes against the
Iran-backed, Shiite Houthi rebels in Yemen, a group that helped
overthrow of Yemeni President Abd-Rabbu Mansour Hadi and recently
killed former President Ali Abdullah Saleh after he turned against
On the other hand, Russia, supported by Iran and its loyal ally
Hezbollah in Lebanon, uses its weight and power to protect the
Syrian regime of Bashar al-Assad, with Russian troops fighting side
by side with the Syrian army against what they refer to as terrorist
Demanding removal of Syria’s Assad and seeking to exercise pressure
on Iran and Hezbollah, Saudi Arabia played a role in the recent
resignation of Lebanese Prime Minister Saad al-Hariri, who blamed
Iran and Hezbollah for it in a televised speech from Riyadh,
although he later went back on the resignation.
“Polarization is so big in many countries of the region that has
reached a hard stage of conflict due to the different interests of
world powers. So, there is a need to engage in real dialogue between
the region’s states, while Western states should limit their
interference in the region and their conflict on its soil,” Al-Ahram
editor-in-chief Alaa Sabet told Xinhua in a recent interview.
With regards to China as a rising big power, the giant Asian country
approaches the Middle East differently and practically, based on
mutual economic interests, win-win development of regional
developing states and non-interference in other countries’ domestic
affairs, stressing that development and dialogue are the main axes
for resolving regional conflicts.
“The Chinese role is very important. China has a lot of relations
and interests in the region and a real and big desire for openness
towards the Middle East, which is very important,” Sabet said,
adding that “China diplomatically is doing very well and it
approaches the region with very well-studied steps.”
Countering global terrorism, a U.S.-led international alliance,
mainly involving the United States and other Western countries
besides some Arab states, started in 2014 airstrikes against targets
of the Islamic State (IS) terrorist group in Iraq and Syria.
Hence, the Middle East region has become the battlefield of a
U.S.-led international anti-terror alliance, a Russian-led alliance
including Syria, Iraq and Iran and a Saudi-led anti-Shiite Arab
alliance against the Houthis in Yemen, with members of each
coalition seeking to preserve their own interests.
With the IS defeat and decline in Raqqa and Mosul, the group’s de
facto capitals in Syria and Iraq, the IS militants are expected to
flee and seek shelter with their fellows in Libya and Egypt, where
their affiliates have proved strong presence.
In Egypt, for instance, the IS claimed most of the terror attacks
that killed hundreds of policemen and soldiers as well as dozens of
the Coptic minority since the former Islamist President Mohamed
Morsi, together with his currently outlawed Muslim Brotherhood
group, was toppled in July 2013 due to mass protests against his
On Nov. 24, a terrorist attack against a mosque in North Sinai
killed at least 310 Muslim worshippers and wounded over 120 others,
marking the deadliest terror operation and the first against a
Muslim mosque in Egypt’s modern history. But no group has yet
claimed responsibility for this one.
The Egyptian leadership under President Abdel-Fattah al-Sisi has
been engaging in an anti-terror war over the past few years,
accusing the Brotherhood of being behind all terrorist operations
that took place in the country since Morsi’s removal, and Qatar of
supporting terrorism, sheltering Brotherhood members and interfering
in the Egyptian domestic affairs.
The rift led Egypt to join a Saudi-led blockade against Qatar in
early June, cutting its diplomatic ties and economic cooperation
with Qatar to pressure the rich emirate to give up its support for
the Brotherhood and generally to stop interfering in other
countries’ domestic affairs, a charge that has been repeatedly
denied by Qatar.
The outgoing year has also seen greater world concern for achieving
stability in Libya via political dialogue between major Libyan rival
parties, while Egypt is keeping a close watch on its 1,200 km
western border with eastern Libya that has been a smuggling
destination of arms and militants over the past few years.
Libya is torn by a civil war and run by two rival administrations,
one in the capital Tripoli northwestern the country and the other in
Tobruk city in the northeast, which makes the North African country
a suitable incubator for IS militants.
In early November, Egypt arrested a Libyan militant who was involved
in a recent anti-police deadly attack in a desert area southern the
capital Cairo. Being the only survivor of security raids following
the anti-police attack, the Libyan militant confessed that his group
leader was an Egyptian affiliated with al-Qaida and that all other
members of the group were killed in the raids.
Terrorism and political disorder in the region are closely
interrelated, as terrorists find chaotic spots most suitable for
their activities and recruitments, as clearly seen in war-torn
Syria, Iraq, Libya and Yemen.
Since most of the terror groups claimed themselves as Islamists and
justified their violence by misleading and deceptive interpretations
of Islamic texts, the Palestinian cause and the Israeli occupation
of the disputed holy city of Jerusalem are among the main reasons
for growing regional and global terrorism.
In Egypt’s North Sinai governorate for example, the IS-affiliated
terrorist group that carried out most of the attacks over the past
few years referred to itself in the beginning as “Ansar Bayt al-Maqdis,”
meaning “Supporters of Jerusalem,” before changing its name to
“Walayat Sinai” meaning “Sinai State” or “Sinai Province” and
declared loyalty to the IS.
This is why Trump’s decision to recognize Jerusalem as Israel’s
capital is expected by many to foster extremist thoughts although it
is not an excuse for extremism.
Generally, many experts believe that the 2003 U.S. invasion of Iraq
sowed the seeds for the growth of terrorist groups as well as the
general chaotic situation in the Middle East region afterwards.
“The regional issues are interrelated and highly complicated. At
many times, it is in favor of some countries like the United States
that such regional disorders continue. The United States complicates
regional conditions for its own interests,” Sabet said.
Years of prolonged chaos and miseries have shown that the use of
force and military actions will not solve the Middle East crises and
conflicts, but only aggravate them. So the problems could only be
tackled in different approaches: namely, the political and economic
Most regional states are Arabs, yet polarizations and conflicting
interests disbanded them into a fragile bloc that occasionally
gather at the Cairo-based Arab League headquarters at times of
emergency with no real effective outcomes on the ground.
Inter-Arab dialogue and unity are a prerequisite for regional
settlements, as a united Arab nation would be a significant power to
push forward for long-awaited solutions and to be reconsidered by
big powers upon making any decisions related to the region.
Regional powers, such as Saudi Arabia and Iran, also need to
rationalize and prioritize the region’s security and stability over
narrow interests, which only serve to escalate the situations in
Syria, Iraq, Lebanon and Yemen.
Development and economic growth, in turn, are basic factors for
regional security and stability, given that the Middle East region
in general and the Arab world in particular have sufficient
resources for mutual fruitful economic cooperation that would limit
chances for polarization, disorder and terror.
“As 2017 was a year full of regional challenges and conflicts, we
hope that 2018 will be a year of Arab-Arab and Islamic-Islamic
closeness and unity in order to face such challenges,” Sabet said.